Just a Theory

By David E. Wheeler

Introducing pgTAP

So I started working on a new PostgreSQL data type this week. More on that soon; in the meantime, I wanted to create a test suite for it, and wasn’t sure where to go. The only PostgreSQL tests I’ve seen are those distributed with Elein Mustain’s tests for the email data type she created in a PostgreSQL General Bits posting from a couple of years ago. I used the same approach myself for my GTIN data type, but it was rather hard to use: I had to pay very close attention to what was output in order to tell the description output from the test output. It was quite a PITA, actually.

This time, I started down the same path, then then started thinking about Perl testing, where each unit test, or “assertion,” in the xUnit parlance, triggers output of a single line of information indicating whether or not a test succeeded. It occurred to me that I could just run a bunch of queries that returned booleans to do my testing. So my first stab looked something like this:

\pset format unaligned
\pset tuples_only
\pset pager
\pset null '[NULL]'

SELECT foo() = 'bar';
SELECT foo(1) = 'baz';
SELECT foo(2) = 'foo';

The output looked like this:

% psql try -f ~/Desktop/try.sql

Once I started down that path, and had written ten or so tests, It suddenly dawned on me that the Perl Test::More module and its core ok() subroutine worked just like that. It essentially just depends on a boolean value and outputs text based on that value. A couple minutes of hacking and I had this:

    SELECT (CASE $1 WHEN TRUE THEN '' ELSE 'not ' END) || 'ok'
        || ' ' || NEXTVAL('__tc__')
        || CASE $2 WHEN '' THEN '' ELSE COALESCE( ' - ' || $2, '' ) END;

I then rewrote my test queries like so:

\echo 1..3
SELECT ok( foo() = 'bar'   'foo() should return "bar"' );
SELECT ok( foo(1) = 'baz', 'foo(1) should return "baz"' );
SELECT ok( foo(2) = 'foo', 'foo(2) should return "foo"' );

Running these tests, I now got:

% psql try -f ~/Desktop/try.sql
ok 1 - foo() should return "bar"
ok 2 - foo(1) should return "baz"
ok 3 - foo(2) should return "foo"

And, BAM! I had the beginning of a test framework that emits pure TAP output.

Well, I was so excited about this that I put aside my data type for a few hours and banged out the rest of the framework. Why was this exciting to me? Because now I can use a standard test harness to run the tests, even mix them in with other TAP tests on any project I might work on. Just now, I quickly hacked together a quick script to run the tests:

use TAP::Harness;

my $harness = TAP::Harness->new({
    timer   => $opts->{timer},
    exec    => [qw( psql try -f )],

$harness->runtests( @ARGV );

Now I’m able to run the tests like so:

% try ~/Desktop/try.sql        
All tests successful.
Files=1, Tests=3,  0 wallclock secs ( 0.00 usr  0.00 sys +  0.01 cusr  0.00 csys =  0.01 CPU)
Result: PASS

Pretty damn cool! And lest you wonder whether such a suite of TAP-emitting test functions is suitable for testing SQL, here are a few examples of tests I’ve written:

-- Plan the tests.
SELECT plan(4);

-- Emit a diagnostic message for users of different locales.
SELECT diag(
    E'These tests expect LC_COLLATE to be en_US.UTF-8,\n'
    || 'but yours is set to ' || setting || E'.\n'
    || 'As a result, some tests may fail. YMMV.'
    FROM pg_settings
    WHERE name = 'lc_collate'
    AND setting <> 'en_US.UTF-8';

SELECT is( 'a', 'a', '"a" should = "a"' );
SELECT is( 'B', 'B', '"B" should = "B"' );

    name lctext PRIMARY KEY

INSERT INTO try (name)
VALUES ('a'), ('ab'), ('â'), ('aba'), ('b'), ('ba'), ('bab'), ('AZ');

SELECT ok( 'a' = name, 'We should be able to select the value' )
    FROM try
    WHERE name = 'a';

SELECT throws_ok(
    'INSERT INTO try (name) VALUES (''a'')',
    'We should get an error inserting a lowercase letter'

-- Finish the tests and clean up.
SELECT * FROM finish();

As you can see, it’s just SQL. And yes, I have ported most of the test functions from Test::More, as well as a couple from Test::Exception.

So, without further ado, I’d like to introduce pgTAP, a lightweight test framework for PostgreSQL implemented in PL/pgSQL and PL/SQL. I’ll be hacking on it more in the coming days, mostly to get a proper client for running tests hacked together. Then I think I’ll see if pgFoundry is interested in it.

Whaddya think? Is this something you could use? I can see many uses, myself, not only for testing a custom data type as I develop it, but also custom functions in PL/pgSQL or PL/Perl, and, heck, just regular schema stuff. I’ve had to write a lot of Perl tests to test my database schema (triggers, rules, functions, etc.), all using the DBI and being very verbose. Being able to do it all in a single psql script seems so much cleaner. And if I can end up mixing the output of those scripts in with the rest of my unit tests, so much the better!

Anyway, feedback welcome. Leave your comments, suggestions, complaints, patches, etc., below. Thanks!

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